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Face Recognition Software In Vb6 Source Code

OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision) is released under a BSD license, and thus is free for both academic and commercial use. It has C++, C, Python, and Java interfaces and supports Windows, Linux, Mac OS, iOS, and Android operating systems. OpenCV was designed for computational efficiency, with a strong focus on real-time applications. Written in C/C++ coding languages, its vast library of code can take advantage of multi-core processing.

face recognition software in vb6 source code

OpenCV 2.4 now comes with the very new FaceRecognizer class for face recognition, so you can start experimenting with face recognition right away. This document is the guide I've wished for, when I was working myself into face recognition. It shows you how to perform face recognition with FaceRecognizer in OpenCV (with full source code listings) and gives you an introduction into the algorithms behind. I'll also show how to create the visualizations you can find in many publications, because a lot of people asked for.

You don't need to copy and paste the source code examples from this page, because they are available in the src folder coming with this documentation. If you have built OpenCV with the samples turned on, chances are good you have them compiled already! Although it might be interesting for very advanced users, I've decided to leave the implementation details out as I am afraid they confuse new users.

Face recognition is an easy task for humans. Experiments in [217] have shown, that even one to three day old babies are able to distinguish between known faces. So how hard could it be for a computer? It turns out we know little about human recognition to date. Are inner features (eyes, nose, mouth) or outer features (head shape, hairline) used for a successful face recognition? How do we analyze an image and how does the brain encode it? It was shown by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, that our brain has specialized nerve cells responding to specific local features of a scene, such as lines, edges, angles or movement. Since we don't see the world as scattered pieces, our visual cortex must somehow combine the different sources of information into useful patterns. Automatic face recognition is all about extracting those meaningful features from an image, putting them into a useful representation and performing some kind of classification on them.

Face recognition based on the geometric features of a face is probably the most intuitive approach to face recognition. One of the first automated face recognition systems was described in [115] : marker points (position of eyes, ears, nose, ...) were used to build a feature vector (distance between the points, angle between them, ...). The recognition was performed by calculating the euclidean distance between feature vectors of a probe and reference image. Such a method is robust against changes in illumination by its nature, but has a huge drawback: the accurate registration of the marker points is complicated, even with state of the art algorithms. Some of the latest work on geometric face recognition was carried out in [37] . A 22-dimensional feature vector was used and experiments on large datasets have shown, that geometrical features alone may not carry enough information for face recognition.

The Eigenfaces method described in [218] took a holistic approach to face recognition: A facial image is a point from a high-dimensional image space and a lower-dimensional representation is found, where classification becomes easy. The lower-dimensional subspace is found with Principal Component Analysis, which identifies the axes with maximum variance. While this kind of transformation is optimal from a reconstruction standpoint, it doesn't take any class labels into account. Imagine a situation where the variance is generated from external sources, let it be light. The axes with maximum variance do not necessarily contain any discriminative information at all, hence a classification becomes impossible. So a class-specific projection with a Linear Discriminant Analysis was applied to face recognition in [17] . The basic idea is to minimize the variance within a class, while maximizing the variance between the classes at the same time.

Let's get some data to experiment with first. I don't want to do a toy example here. We are doing face recognition, so you'll need some face images! You can either create your own dataset or start with one of the available face databases, gives you an up-to-date overview. Three interesting databases are (parts of the description are quoted from

For the first source code example, I'll go through it with you. I am first giving you the whole source code listing, and after this we'll look at the most important lines in detail. Please note: every source code listing is commented in detail, so you should have no problems following it.

I've used the jet colormap, so you can see how the grayscale values are distributed within the specific Eigenfaces. You can see, that the Eigenfaces do not only encode facial features, but also the illumination in the images (see the left light in Eigenface #4, right light in Eigenfaces #5):

10 Eigenvectors are obviously not sufficient for a good image reconstruction, 50 Eigenvectors may already be sufficient to encode important facial features. You'll get a good reconstruction with approximately 300 Eigenvectors for the AT&T Facedatabase. There are rule of thumbs how many Eigenfaces you should choose for a successful face recognition, but it heavily depends on the input data. [255] is the perfect point to start researching for this:

The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is the core of the Eigenfaces method, finds a linear combination of features that maximizes the total variance in data. While this is clearly a powerful way to represent data, it doesn't consider any classes and so a lot of discriminative information may be lost when throwing components away. Imagine a situation where the variance in your data is generated by an external source, let it be the light. The components identified by a PCA do not necessarily contain any discriminative information at all, so the projected samples are smeared together and a classification becomes impossible (see _lda_with_gnu_octave for an example).

The Linear Discriminant Analysis performs a class-specific dimensionality reduction and was invented by the great statistician Sir R. A. Fisher. He successfully used it for classifying flowers in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems [75] . In order to find the combination of features that separates best between classes the Linear Discriminant Analysis maximizes the ratio of between-classes to within-classes scatter, instead of maximizing the overall scatter. The idea is simple: same classes should cluster tightly together, while different classes are as far away as possible from each other in the lower-dimensional representation. This was also recognized by Belhumeur, Hespanha and Kriegman and so they applied a Discriminant Analysis to face recognition in [17] .

Eigenfaces and Fisherfaces take a somewhat holistic approach to face recognition. You treat your data as a vector somewhere in a high-dimensional image space. We all know high-dimensionality is bad, so a lower-dimensional subspace is identified, where (probably) useful information is preserved. The Eigenfaces approach maximizes the total scatter, which can lead to problems if the variance is generated by an external source, because components with a maximum variance over all classes aren't necessarily useful for classification (see _lda_with_gnu_octave). So to preserve some discriminative information we applied a Linear Discriminant Analysis and optimized as described in the Fisherfaces method. The Fisherfaces method worked great... at least for the constrained scenario we've assumed in our model.

Now real life isn't perfect. You simply can't guarantee perfect light settings in your images or 10 different images of a person. So what if there's only one image for each person? Our covariance estimates for the subspace may be horribly wrong, so will the recognition. Remember the Eigenfaces method had a 96% recognition rate on the AT&T Facedatabase? How many images do we actually need to get such useful estimates? Here are the Rank-1 recognition rates of the Eigenfaces and Fisherfaces method on the AT&T Facedatabase, which is a fairly easy image database:

So in order to get good recognition rates you'll need at least 8(+-1) images for each person and the Fisherfaces method doesn't really help here. The above experiment is a 10-fold cross validated result carried out with the facerec framework at: This is not a publication, so I won't back these figures with a deep mathematical analysis. Please have a look into [149] for a detailed analysis of both methods, when it comes to small training datasets.

So what's left to do is how to incorporate the spatial information in the face recognition model. The representation proposed by Ahonen et. al [3] is to divide the LBP image into \(m\) local regions and extract a histogram from each. The spatially enhanced feature vector is then obtained by concatenating the local histograms (not merging them). These histograms are called Local Binary Patterns Histograms.

The Database of Faces, formerly The ORL Database of Faces, contains a set of face images taken between April 1992 and April 1994. The database was used in the context of a face recognition project carried out in collaboration with the Speech, Vision and Robotics Group of the Cambridge University Engineering Department.

An accurate alignment of your image data is especially important in tasks like emotion detection, were you need as much detail as possible. Believe me... You don't want to do this by hand. So I've prepared you a tiny Python script. The code is really easy to use. To scale, rotate and crop the face image you just need to call CropFace(image, eye_left, eye_right, offset_pct, dest_sz), where: 350c69d7ab

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